The heart of an ancient heritage

The processes and the materials that go into the construction of a quality, handmade rug have been largely unchanged over hundreds of years. While many cultures across the globe have developed their own particular style of knotting or weaving, it’s the experience and talent of the individual weaver that makes the biggest difference to the quality of a rug. 

Our rugs are crafted by hand for an enduring beauty that seems to grow even more exquisite with time. Quite simply, there is a nuance in technique and quality that simply cannot be replicated or equalled using machine made methods of rug weavings. Instead, every piece is created by passionate artisans who take pride in their craft from start to finish.

Millions of individually tied knots make up a rug and is crafted with patience and grace. These rugs are built to last for generations.

We make rugs in both India and Nepal. Some of the initial and final stages of production are the same in both regions but their respective weaving specialities set them apart.
Discover each step required to produce an exceptional rug whether it be hand-knotted, flatwoven or made with a handloom.

Weaving In Nepal and India

NEPAL: Home of the Tibetan Knot

Tibet had always been a closed kingdom with permission to enter granted by the Dalai Lama. It was here the traditional Tibetan style of knotting started, left undiscovered for centuries.

When Tibetans fled their homeland to Nepal and India, they took their heritage of weaving with them. This style - a type of continuous knot-on-knot weaving - was discovered to be particularly suited to contemporary design.

Kathmandu is now the centre of traditional Tibetan-style knotting and rugs from Nepal are almost exclusively of this style. They are truly experts at what they do, with the rug weaving being one of the major exports for the country.

The history of knotted rugs in Nepal is a rich fabric in itself and we are proud to support and preserve this craft.

INDIA: Innovation at its Core

While Nepal specialises exclusively in Tibetan-knotted rugs, India is the home of innovation and exploration. It is exhilarating for us to explore how different weaves can be combined, materials can be utilised and the boundaries of weaving can be pushed - something that is truly embraced by our Indian colleagues.

Flatwoven rugs, handloom rugs, hand-knotted rugs are all specialties from this region and our weavers love to try new things. This keeps us all passionate about rugs and the future of sustainability.

Bhadohi is considered the capital of rug weaving within India and 95% of its villagers work in or are supported by the rug crafting industry. The heritage of rug making is centuries old in India, a country that has a tradition for handcraft and art that is world renown.

THE JOURNEY OF A RUG: from concept to creation


No matter the material selected for each rug, the thin fibres need to be spun together in long strands for weaving. Spinning is a process by which the fibre is thickened and strengthened through combining several strands together. Using long, high-quality fibres ensures that once the rug is finished, there is no pilling (small strands of fibre coming loose on the surface of the rug).

Wools are typically prepared for dyeing by first separating it by natural colour and then combing its lengths between two wire brushes, known as carding. We use semi-worsted wool, which is created by removing the shorter yarns and smoothing the longer yarns in the same direction, adding to its softness.

Crossing the Rainbow: DYEING

As there is an almost infinite scope for colour in a rug, the yarn is dyed specifically for every rug. We offer over three-thousand colours and every option has its own special pigment formulation – all recorded by our specialist Dye Master.

This coveted position is responsible for transforming the yarn into a variety of rich and vibrant hues with complete accuracy. The skill is typically passed down to whichever child has the best eye for colour, which is a true talent in itself!

The Master takes full responsibility for the colour and so the other dyers will continuously refer to him, making adjustments as needed, until the colour is approved.


The freshly dyed yarn is then hung out in the fields to cure in the sun, which contributes to its colourfastness. Once it has completely dried, the yarn is twisted into braids and placed on rings. By this time, the loom has already been made by hand to the exact size required, so weaving can begin immediately.

Both wools and silks are dyed in very small batches so that the process can be controlled to perfection. The yarn is immersed in water heated over a coal fire so that the temperature can be more easily maintained. It is rotated constantly in order to ensure an even finish. One hank of wool or silk can take several hours to dye depending entirely on the specific combination of pigment used.


The final piece is only as good as the material used. For our woollen luxury rugs, we use Himalayan and New Zealand wools. These are the highest quality wools available anywhere in the world, lauded for their suppleness and strength and incredible ability to take on colour. Sheep that graze in the highest areas develop a greater concentration of natural lanolin, which improves the fibre with its waxy-barrier.

We also use semi-worsted wool. This means shorter fibres are removed leaving only long ones which are smoothed in the same direction, adding to its softness.

Our recycled water bottles go through a proprietary 2-step process to enhance its ability to mimic natural wools while still being moisture-resistant and bleach cleanable.


It can take months to hand-knot a single rug and in that time dust and debris can collect. Every rug we make is washed 2-3 times (when many other suppliers wash only once) as the additional washing encourages the pile to open up, softening the wools further.

The rugs are immersed completely in water with a light, non-toxic detergent and then laid out flat where they are paddled. This process, which can be almost meditative to watch when done in unison between 2-3 paddlers, also encourages the pile to all lie in the same direction.

The rugs are then placed on a stretching frame to size in an effort to reshape the wet rug to the precise measurements required. These then dry in the sun.


There are several small steps required to finish off a rug, depending on the type of rug (hand-knotted versus flatwoven for example).

In any case, each rug needs to have a binding hand-sewn to finish off the edges, which is wound around the warp and weft edges to prevent it unravelling. This can be done in the same colour or for design flair, a contrast colour can be used.

The surface of the rug is then trimmed to remove any loose threads. In hand-knotted rugs the pattern will be embossed by hand, meaning the perimeter of the pattern is very slightly trimmed, better defining the pattern.

These final steps are as important as the weaving, carried out by talented artisans who specialise is this handwork.


Tying It Together: Hand Knotted

The history of knotted rugs in Nepal is a rich fabric in itself and we are proud to support and preserve this craft.

We most often use the Tibetan Knot style of hand-knotting for our luxurious, with-pile rugs (as oppose to flat kilim-like rugs). It is formed by simultaneously tying the yarn around both a horizontal metal rod and the cotton warp (which runs vertically). Every new knot is a continuation of the previous. The knots are then sliced on the rod to create a pile or left looped for added texture.

This style of knot is very well suited to contemporary design and allows for patterns to be easily adapted to different densities. The quality of a knotted rug is measured in knots per square inch and the minimum density required depends entirely on the complexity of the design.

Our weavers follow a life-size graph so that the pattern can be followed knot-by-knot. A remarkably intricate craft, it takes approximately 600 hours to complete the weaving of a 2m x 3m (6’7″ x 9’10”) rug made in 100-knots per square inch. The total knot-count of the same piece is just under 1 million.

FLATWOVEN: Rugs Without Pile

Epitomising casual elegance, the flatweave rug is the perfect understated layer. Rooted in tradition, this style of rug was thought to originate around the fourth or fifth century and weavers have used the same ancient technique for centuries.

Crafted on a horizontal loom using the highest-grade New Zealand wool or sustainable /re/PURPOSE PERFORMANCE fibres, this style of rug is particularly suited to linear and geometric designs due to the grid-like construction of the weave. Because they are without-pile, flatweaves sit pretty on both carpet and hardwood flooring. As the pattern is identical on both the front and back, these rugs can also be reversed for longer use.

Sense of Luxury: Handloom Knot

Ideal for shorter lead-times, our handloom rug styles give a knotted effect while being created on a loom, ensuring a high-quality piece that lasts for generations. These rugs possess a dense pile with a real sense of luxury. Rather than creating the rug knot-by-knot, it is crafted row-by-row (much like a fabric) on a loom which is operated with shuttles carrying the weft fibres between the warp, changing the warp with pedals operated by foot.

The use of the loom is a fairly swift production style but does require linear patterns and solid colours (which can have patterns embossed to the surface in the hand-finishing stages later). Solid rugs with borders, stripes and a combination of loop and cut pile are popular in this style of weaving.

Hand-dyeing is as much an art as a science. Every colour selected for a rug is dyed by hand over the course of several hours at extremely high temperatures.